South Korean Balhyocha & Hwangcha

I recently went down the rabbit hole as they say researching a single topic for my upcoming book on tea. This time the rabbit hole was related to South Korean tea: balhyocha and hwangcha to be exact. Some tea merchants selling the same product will call it hwangcha and some will call it balhyocha. There seems to be no single definition of either of these tea terms and even more disconcerting, neither fits cleanly into standard tea classifications. What follows are excerpts from Matt of the wonderful Mattcha tea blog and discussions I’ve had with two South Korean tea experts followed by my own take on the subject.

From Mattcha (post one / post two):

“Hadong Green Tea Institute launched a research project [in 2009] looking into the different forms of production in the hopes of finding a standard formula at which they can mass produce. They claimed that because Balhyocha production has much to do with instinct, there really is no standard way of production.”

The processing of Balhyocha typically follows these steps: Withering -> Rolling -> Heaping -> Drying

“Koreans generally consider Balhyocha to be in the yellow tea category (Hwangcha) because they call the production step of vigorous shaping/rolling, and then slow drying [“men huang”] or “yellowing phase”. Also, the final product pours yellow. So as a very matter a fact sensory judgement- the tea is a yellow tea.”

Mina Park (from an email discussion / Mina works for Hankook Tea and writes here):

“Hwangcha is not a yellow tea. You may find that description on the web here and there because when initially released it in the US, the Korean words “hwang” and “cha” literally translates to “yellow/golden” and “tea”. Hwangcha is a partially oxidized tea. In Korea, it is categorized as a “bu-bun-balhyocha” (“bu-bun” meaning “partial/partially”). The method of oxidation, which is different from an oolong or from other oxidized tea, is what sets this apart from other oxidized teas.”

Gabriel Furnari (from an email discussion / Gabriel runs Jiri Mountain Tea):

“When the terms balhyocha and hwangcha are used by the locals here and elsewhere some confusion understandably arises. Balhyo translates into ‘fermented.’ The leaves of hwangcha have oxidized and falls under ban-balhyo (which means half, semi, or partially oxidized). This may not be entirely accurate in terms of Korean hwangcha. The information I have on Korean hwangcha is based on what I saw from a Korean tea processing chart which was written in Korean, and gleaned from an experienced tea artisan who has traveled to China and learned tea processing techniques from a Chinese tea master.”

“However, it truly is tricky because from what I have seen, and have been told by more than one tea artisan here in Hwagae Valley is that hwangcha is more the exception than the rule. Most of the balhyocha made and sold in Korea and outside of it is made with tea leaves that have been more oxidized than Korean hwangcha. Having said that, the majority of Korean fermented/oxidized tea made is called balhyocha even if it is hwangcha.”

“Balhyo is the general term for any tea or food (kimchi comes to mind), for that matter, that has undergone any sort of fermentation in Korea. As you might already know the Korean yellow tea and Chinese yellow tea are similar in name only, hwangcha. That is where the similarities end.”

“Hwangcha (yellow) is a type of balhyocha (partially oxidized tea), but not quite a fully oxidized black tea. Every tea artisan uses a slightly different processing technique and temperature guidelines to make their own unique Hwangcha. I once asked a Korean tea artisan here in Hwagae Valley while sipping green tea with him to define Balhyocha. Without hesitation he said it was black tea, not yellow tea. I don’t really know the true reason for the way he responded tha way that he did. It may have been easier to say black tea without explaining what yellow tea is or maybe he didn’t want to confuse this foreigner.”

“I learned that the Korean tea makers adopted yellow tea from the Chinese tea processing classification, but tweaked it to complement their own processing methods and to make a unique brand of Korean fermented yellow tea. It does not have a long traditional use when compared to Korean nokcha from what I understand. That is why there is no clear understanding of it outside of Korea. I don’t think its yellow tea or black tea according to ‘standard’ tea processing charts.”


From these discussions/excerpts, it is easy to discern that balhyocha (발효차) translates to “fermented tea” which really refers to “oxidized tea.” This means that any oxidized tea is balhyocha, including hwangcha (황차). You may have noticed that Mina and Gabriel added a bit of detail here with their usage of the terms bu-bun bal-hyo-cha (부분 발효차) and ban-balhyocha (반 발효차) which are similar terms that mean partially oxidized and half-oxidized respectively. So the big question that remains is…. what type of tea is hwangcha? Let’s compare what we know of the hwangcha process to my tea processing chart:

Is hwangcha a yellow tea?
Hwangcha is similar to yellow tea in that it has a heaping process and the resulting infusion is yellow. But hwangcha does not go through a kill-green process like traditional yellow tea. This is the only major difference. The drying process technically functions as a kill-green here, but this is done last.

Is hwangcha an oolong tea?
Hwangcha is similar to oolong in that it is semi-oxidized. But that’s it. hwangcha isn’t bruised repeatedly like an oolong, and Hwangcha doesn’t go through a kill-green process like oolong. Also, oolong does not have a heaping process.

Is hwangcha a black tea?
Hwangcha is similar to black tea if we call the heaping phase oxidation. Because there is no kill-green when it comes to hwangcha, it is safe to say that oxidation is occuring during heaping.  Black tea is withered, rolled, oxidized, and dried.  The only problem here is that hwangcha is not typically as oxidized as a black tea, but because of the similarities between the processes, hwangcha can be considered a “lightly oxidized” black tea. Brother Anthony of Taize in his book The Korean Way of Tea compares hwangcha to black tea on page 37: “Korean tea makers have begun producing small quantities of oxidized tea, usually known as hwangcha that is similar in taste to the black/red tea familiar to the rest of the world.”

What do you think?


About the Author:

Tony has been studying tea for over ten years and has traveled to many tea producing regions throughout Asia. His book, "Tea: A User's Guide" is available now.


  1. Arthur K. J. Park March 15, 2016 at 2:49 pm - Reply

    Trying to discuss the difference between a hwangcha and a balhyocha is like trying to discuss the difference between a sparrow and a bird.

  2. Arthur K. J. Park December 1, 2014 at 10:35 am - Reply

    You are ignoring something very important to Korean teas that your experts have been telling you. Korean teas including hwangcha is a balhyocha. Don’t try to put it into some Chinese category. It is simply bu-bun balhyocha. Incidentally I have seen Koreans make “hwangcha” many times never have I seen it heaped in piles as you suggest. Although it is produced in many slightly different ways by different artisan producers. I suppose some may heap it. Balhyochas simply demand their own classification – balhyocha. The amount of oxidation varies with each producer perhaps even more than oolongs. But they are all balhyocha. Just leave it at that.

  3. Eric Glass December 13, 2013 at 3:46 am - Reply

    Tony, it is my understanding, that there are 3 basic, mind you BASIC, groups of Korean tea: NokCha (greens), Ddokcha (really only used for medicinal purposes) and Balhyocha (which is best described as “not” green tea). And for all purposes, I always leave ddokcha out of it as it was never drank for pleasure or in ceremonies or for offerings, only for medicinal reasons. So we can reduce the basic basic categories of Korean tea to 2: green and “not” green. Balhyocha, like stated, can be sorted into several sections, but again to my understanding, only by oxidation/fermentation (whichever you want to call it) levels, not by processing technique. To go further, I have been told that many “artisan” tea makers tweak their processing of their balhyocha here and there that so much so that I would not go very far in depth of the specific processing techniques. I also think it would so hard to attempt to lump balhyocha into a “normal” or “common” tea category, that it might be easiest AND best to give it it’s own category without any specific processing technique. I could go on, but I am no expert. A good idea would be to contact a good friend of mine, Arthur Park who could easily ask Brother Anthony, and others. He has direct contact with many of these small batch “artisan” tea makers, even ones that specialize in balhyocha. These are my views, but I would not put my views in your book, not yet.

    • Tony Gebely December 13, 2013 at 6:55 am - Reply

      Thanks for the insight here. There are many classifying terms that use balhyocha as a root:

      발효차 = bal-hyo-cha = oxidized tea
      불 발효차 = bul bal-hyo-cha = not oxidized tea

      부분 발효차 = bu-bun bal-hyo-cha = partially oxidized
      반 발효차 = ban bal-hyo-cha = literal translation is “half oxidized” used often to indicate “partially oxidized tea”
      완전 발효차 = wan-jeon bal-hyo-cha = fully oxidized tea
      후 발효차 = hu bal-hyo-cha = “after” oxidized tea, indicating post-fermentation

      So yes, teas in South Korea seem to be primarily sorted by oxidation level. Thanks for the connection to Arthur Park, I’ll contact him. I also just followed up with you on Facebook. Cheers!


  4. Adam Yusko December 11, 2013 at 9:09 pm - Reply

    You touched upon this but didn’t at the same time. But one point of confusion that I have noticed, and basically have decided is there to stay at least in the western world, is the fact that the longer Korean names all have balhyocha in the name. This is because from the studying I have done on Korean styles of tea, you are basically a green tea or fall into the incredibly messy category of “balhyocha” which while some might have names reminiscent of the Chinese styles of tea we have come to know and love, are really their own animals. Moreover, I’ve come to realize the names are mildly inconsistent between vendors causing even more confusion.

    • Tony Gebely December 11, 2013 at 9:26 pm - Reply

      I agree with you that the names are inconsistent between vendors. It’s a confusing subject. As for balhyocha types, we’ve got:

      발효차 = bal-hyo-cha = which means “oxidized tea” and categorically includes all oxidized teas
      부분 발효차 = bu-bun-bal-hyo-cha = which means “partially oxidized tea”
      반 발효차 = ban-bal-hyo-cha = which means “half oxidized tea” and is often used to indicate partially oxidized tea

      Hwangcha can be considered any one of the above depending upon well, who made it and what they’ve decided to call it / how much they’ve allowed the leaves to oxidize / what the merchant decides to call it.

  5. Nigel Melican December 9, 2013 at 2:26 am - Reply

    Tony, Far be it from me to confuse you further – and I am no expert on yellow tea – but have always classed it as an oddity in that the definitive process (or various processes) involving heaping or wrapping or sweating the withered leaf seem to have a unique effect in the tea processing panoply – they favor the degradation of leaf chlorophyll (green) to pheophorbide (yellow brown) rather than fixing the chlorophyll green color (vivid green as in steam fixing, more yellow green as in slower dry heat pan fixing). Chlorophyll is a complex molecule but has a loosely bound magnesium atom at its heart – losing this Mg converts Chl to Phb – so somehow the Yellow Tea Process favors Mg loss – which can in vitro be manipulated by pH, heat, time and other chemical elements – for example bicarbonate of soda (NaHCO3) used to be added to boiling cabbage as the Na swaps with the Mg and forms a more heat stable molecule.

    (NB. It also happens that pheophorbide have some recognized health benefits).

    • Tony Gebely December 11, 2013 at 6:29 pm - Reply

      Nigel, thanks for the helpful information. The part that blows my mind about hwangcha in Korea is that is is not fixed. Most Chinese yellows are fixed then heaped for yellowing. If they are not fixed and are just heaped, the heaping/yellowing phase of production really just acts as an oxidation step making hwangcha most similar to a lightly oxidized black tea (pardon the oxymoron) in my mind.

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